European Protest and Coercion Data

Research project

European Protest and Coercion Data is developed by Ron Francisco at the University of Kansas. The website offers free download of what Francisco refers to as “valid interval data” on protest and coercion in 28 European countries from 1980 through 1995 (for every day).


European Protest and Coercion Data

European Protest and Coercion Data


European Protest and Coercion Data


Excel and ASCII text (tab-delimited)




28 countries

Last reviewed


Data types and sources

The project used Lexis-Nexis as its primary source medium and accessed its Reuters Textline library, which provided global, regional and local wire-services as well as on-line newspapers and magazines—a total of over 400 publications. The data are country-specific.

Data download

European Protest and Coercion Data


European Protest and Coercion Data codes all reported protest and repressive events such as strikes, occupations, hunger strikes, and vigils. The data are interval. Date, day, action type, location, target or government agent (police, court, ministry, etc.), number of protesters (all, arrested, injured, killed) are shown, the organizational strength of the protesters is estimated and there is a description of each event with the identification of the original source.

Geographical coverage

The original dataset covers 28 European countries, including data on a regional level in the cases of Northern Ireland, the Czech and Slovakia Republics, and East and West Germany. Note that similar daily interval data for Korea, Burma and four Latin American countries (Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador and Peru) are available from the same webpage.

Time coverage and updates

The dataset is completed and contains daily and sub-daily interval coded data from 1980 through 1995.


All variables are well documented in the project’s codebook, which is available online. The codebook covers topics such as context coding, coding conventions and country notes.

Access conditions and cost

Available free of charge.

Access procedures

Ready-made, predefined tables.

Data formats

Excel and ASCII text (tab-delimited)

Comparability and data quality

European Protest and Coercion Data provides users with data containing information about protest events in greater volume and quality. Nam (2006:282) argues that “the problem of inconsistency of categorization is resolved by focusing on an event itself rather than on a category.” Furthermore, the PCD project codes sub-daily events and employs data from many relevant sources. The traditional datasets remain vulnerable to various types of bias due to their dependence on very few sources. See Nam (2006) for a general discussion on coding protest data.


Francisco, R. A. 2000. Codebook for European Protest and Coercion Data, 1980 through 1995. University of Kansas.

Nam, T. 2006. What You Use Matters: Coding Protest Data. PS: Political Science & Politics, 39:2:281-287. Cambridge University Press.